We determined Saturn’s gravitational field by reconstruction of Cassini’s trajectory during the Grand Finale, using a coherent microwave link between Earth tracking stations and the spacecraft. Range-rate measurements were obtained from the Doppler shift of a carrier signal sent from the ground at 7.2 GHz (X-band) and retransmitted back to Earth by Cassini’s onboard transponder at 8.4 GHz. An auxiliary downlink at Ka-band (32.5 GHz) was also recorded.
Human Vs Robotic exploration has been – and is still- of a major reason for debate between many scientists. Each presents their own claims and why their ideas are better. It has also been( as usual) a major topic in SciFi movies and has attracted a lot of fans. Before we delve into the pros